How helpful are urban ponds for biodiversity?

pond-84855_1280Background: Urban ecosystems are becoming increasingly important as areas for biodiversity conservation, as we begin to recognise the importance of preserving natural habitat within heavily modified environments for both wildlife and human well being. Urban ponds are a key part of this network of habitats within cities, and are commonly found in parks, gardens and industrial estates. In fact, there are an estimated 2.5-3.5 million garden ponds in the UK alone, which could have an area the size of Lake Windermere!

What we did: I was invited to submit a review of the biodiversity value of urban ponds. This later expanding beyond simply describing biodiversity patterns to include the ecological processes that generate those patterns. I describe a wide-ranging set of potential negative impacts on urban pond biodiversity, including invasive species, mismanagement, pollution, and habitat destruction.  However, I also took great care to highlight the benefits of these habitats in terms of their use in controlling stormwater, their role in local aesthetics, and the way in which they provide access to nature in inner cities. These ponds can be a fantastic resource if managed well.

Importance: Research on urban water bodies has been growing, and this review highlights both the work that has been done up to now and the gaps in our current knowledge that should be filled in the future.

This is part of a series of short lay summaries that describe the technical publications I have authored.  This paper, entitled “The ecology and biodiversity of urban ponds”, was published in the journal WIREs Water in 2014. You can find this paper at the publisher’s website or for free at Figshare.

Image credit: noitulos, http://bit.ly/1C0x7cA, Public Domain.

Species with a chemical defence (but not a chemical offence) live longer

Dendrobatid frogs are the classic “aposematic” species: they advertise their toxins with bright colours

I wanted to spend a post talking about a new paper that was published recently (3 May 2013) with some colleagues from Carleton University.  It is easy to see the value of tasting bad: predators try to eat you, feel sick, then leave you alone.  Even better if you have bright colours or a strong smell (called “aposematic signals”) to go along with it – that way predators can learn to avoid your colours without having to taste you a second time.  In fact, they don’t have to taste you at all if other animals of your species also have the bad taste and the bright colours.  In theory, this chemical defence should reduce deaths due to predation which means that the prey live longer.Read More »